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Endeavor over the Advancement and History of Plate Tectonics

Endeavor over the Advancement and History of Plate Tectonics

Plate tectonics originates from two words; plate and tectonic. Plate in geological conditions implies a large slab of really hard rock while tectonics in Greek implies’ to build’. Therefore’ plate tectonic may be outlined as how the earth’s is created on going the plate. It can even be well-defined being a rigid section on the Earth’s lithosphere that moves independently from those surrounding it (Rodger, 1993). Theory of plate tectonics states that the lithosphere of the earth is built up of particular person plates which have been fragmented into quite a few large and small items of sound rock. The plates move upcoming to one another in addition to the reduce mantle to build diverse types of plate borders that have formed the Earth’s landscape over numerous a long time. (Oreske & Legrand, 2001). Alfred Wegener, a popular meteorologist, is known to be the founder on the plate tectonic concept; He noticed the coastline of East South America and that of west coast of Africa seemed to fit together in a jigsaw manner like to form a bigger plate. He then proposed an idea that all plates (continents) were once connected to a single massive plate called Pangaea which gradually began to drift apart in excess of 300 million years ago (Rodger, 1993). More scientific research around the plates’ coastline revealed that all the plate of earth’s continent somehow fit together. The concept was commonly known as continental drift principle, and Wegener became the founder with the concept on which scientist have based their research on. However, Alfred Wegener plate tectonics idea could not ascertain how exactly the continents drifted away from just about every other. He proposed the earth’s rotations and the centrifugal forces towards the equator as one in the possible mechanism for continental drift. He said that Pangaea started at South Pole and earth’s rotation finally caused it to break up, sending continents toward the equator. His theories were discarded by the scientific community (Rodger, 1993). Arthur Holmes, (1929), a British geologist, came up with the concept of thermal convection to explain the gradual drift with the Earth’s continents. He based on heating and cooling cycle in the Earth’s mantle that caused the continents to shift. The idea has been borrowed by scientist community in their quest for earth’s shape. Today scientist have researched and analyzed past evidences and findings by geologist and scientist to expound and come up with a better ways of explaining plate tectonic theory and forces that were behind the drifting on the plates. It is believed and proofed using geological evidence that earth’s plate at one time was one super plate called Pangaea. Due to three main driving forces namely, mantle convection, gravity, and the Earth’s rotation led to the drifting away of quite a few plate from the main one. Numerous major plates (continents) were formed which include North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Indo-Australian, Pacific, and Antarctica. Expounding within the three main driving forces for the movement from the Earth’s tectonic plates; Mantle convection is the most extensively studied technique of tectonic plate movement. It was widely discussed by Holmes in 1929, in his principle. The big convection current of molten material in the Earth’s upper mantle produces a lot of energies which is transferred to lower mantle. The reduce mantle material finds their way to the crust causing the embedded rock to transfer out and away from the ridge thus relocating the plate. Evidence of this is shown at mid-ocean ridges. Gravity is evidenced by the mid-ocean ridges where the elevation is higher than the bordering ocean floor. Convection currents within the Earth cause lower mantle material to rise and spread away from the ridge, uk essay writing help causing the older material to flow toward the ocean floor due to gravity and aid in the movement in the plates. Then lastly earth rotation is caused by centrifugal forces as earth rotates (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Plates form different styles of boundary as they interact with their movement. Some with the boundaries formed include Divergent boundaries form when a plate breaks along certain lines of weakness and go away from just about every other forming a new crust, for instance, Mid-ocean ridges. The other boundary is called Convergent boundaries and is created when two plates collide with one another causing the sinking of one plate below the other. Transform boundaries forms at location where new crust created and without destroying it. Today, through research, scientists have come up with a number of evidences proving that earth plates were once super plate which split into the current Continents. Some of your evidences include: the jig-saw fitting of your East coast of South America and west coast of Africa appear to fit into one another; Fossils remains of plants and animals collected by scientist around the world showed similarities that were really hard to explain unless continents had once been joined. For instance, Cynognathus was a land reptile. Its Fossils remains have been found in both Africa and South America, thus proving the two continents were once joined (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Scientist have also found out from the evidence of earthquakes happened continually and occurred along certain lines, near the boundaries between tectonic plates. As Wegener’s ideas forms the basis why the landscape from the earth is the way it is, scientist community have currently advanced methodology of studying the plate tectonic concept. They use satellite to study evidences of plate tectonic where they position it numerous kilometers away from the earth surface. From the satellite statistics, it is evidenced which the plates shift linearly and away from every other at the speed of 10mm to 100mm per year, thus, proving the plate tectonic idea that is earth was once plate which gradually drifted apart over millions of a long time back to form the current continents.

References

Oreskes, N., & LeGrand, H. E. (2001). Plate tectonics: An insider’s record with the modern concept in the Earth. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. Rogers, J. J. W. (1993). A record with the earth. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.

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